07010206 : Environmental Science

Topics to be covered                                                       

Teaching Hours


Natural Resources

Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural resources and associated problems.

  • Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.
  • Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams benefits and problems.
  • Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies.
  • Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies.
  • Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies.
  • Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.











Must Know

Unit 2:


  • Concept of an ecosystem.
  • Structure and function of an ecosystem.
  • Producers, consumers and decomposers.
  • Energy flow in the ecosystem.
  • Ecological succession.
  • Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.

 Biodiversity and its conservation

  • Hot-spots of biodiversity.
  • Threats to biodiversity : habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts
  • Conservation of biodiversity : In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.

Unit 3:

 Environmental Pollution

Definition, causes, effects and control measures of:-

  • a. Air pollution
  • b. Water pollution
  • c. Soil pollution
  • d. Marine pollution
  • e. Noise pollution
  • f. Thermal pollution
  • g. Nuclear hazards
  • Solid waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes.
  • Fireworks, their impacts and hazards
  • Pollution case studies.
  • Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.

Unit 4:

Social Issues and the Environment

  • From Unsustainable to Sustainable development
  • Urban problems related to energy
  • Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management
  • Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case studies
  • Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions
  • Consumerism and waste products
  • Environmental Legislation (Acts and Laws)
  • Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation

 Human Population and the Environment

  • Population growth, variation among nations with case studies
  • Population explosion – Family Welfare Programmes and Family Planning Programmes
  • Human Rights
  • Value Education
  • Women and Child Welfare
  • Internal Assessment