Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural resources and associated problems.
- Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.
- Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams benefits and problems.
- Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies.
- Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies.
- Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies.
- Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.
- Concept of an ecosystem.
- Structure and function of an ecosystem.
- Producers, consumers and decomposers.
- Energy flow in the ecosystem.
- Ecological succession.
- Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.
Biodiversity and its conservation
- Hot-spots of biodiversity.
- Threats to biodiversity : habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts
- Conservation of biodiversity : In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
Definition, causes, effects and control measures of:-
- a. Air pollution
- b. Water pollution
- c. Soil pollution
- d. Marine pollution
- e. Noise pollution
- f. Thermal pollution
- g. Nuclear hazards
- Solid waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes.
- Fireworks, their impacts and hazards
- Pollution case studies.
- Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
Social Issues and the Environment
- From Unsustainable to Sustainable development
- Urban problems related to energy
- Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management
- Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case studies
- Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions
- Consumerism and waste products
- Environmental Legislation (Acts and Laws)
- Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation
Human Population and the Environment
- Population growth, variation among nations with case studies
- Population explosion – Family Welfare Programmes and Family Planning Programmes
- Human Rights
- Value Education
- Women and Child Welfare
- Internal Assessment